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While the French measure the amount of solid ingredients by weight, most Americans measure in volume, using measuring cups and spoons.
And we, poor Cartesian French that we are, get completely lost when reading a recipe in English.

First we have to remember the equivalences or check them on the internet, then we have to do some arithmetic - which might not be our strength - or we have to use measuring cups and spoons we don't have. All the more, we don't see how it could possibly be precise. One cup of flour will definitely not have the same weight as the next because it depends on how you pack it!
Therefore we think using a digital scale and a measuring jug is much more accurate.

In each recipe, I give French measurements in grams and milliliters, with a try of English conversion. For more precise conversion, you can refer to the French gastronomic encyclopedia online convertor here or to the different equivalences listed below.

  • Temperature

The rule to Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures

Fahrenheit degrees to Celsius degrees : Farenheit minus 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9 (Celsius = (Fahrenheit - 32) x 5/9).
Example : 400°F = (400-32)*5/9 = 204°C
Celsius degrees to Fahrenheit degrees = Celcius multiplied by 9, divide by 5 and add 32 (Fahrenheit = (Celsius x 9/5) + 32).
Example : 200°C = 200*9/5 + 32 = 392°F

Temperature :
°C = °F = type of temperature = Thermostat (French oven mark) = gas mark

30°C = 85°F = Heating chamber = T1
60°C = 140°F = Warm = T2
90°C = 190°F =  Low heat = T3
120°C = 250°F = Low heat = T4
140°C = 275°F = gas mark 1
150°C = 300°F = Low heat gas =T5 = mark 2
165°C = 325°F = gas mark 3
180°C = 350°F = Hot = T6 = gas mark 4
190°C = 375°F = gas mark 5
200°C = 400°F = gas mark 6
210°C = 410°F = Hot = T7
220°C = 425°F = gas mark 7
230°C = 450°F = gas mark 9
240°C = 460°F = Very hot = T8 = gas mark 10
270°C = 520°F = Very hot = T9

A few notions to know 

°F °C State
 32°F  °C  Freezing point (water freeze)
98,6°F   36,9°C  Body temperature
 115°F  46°C  Simmering water
 130°F  54°C  Hot water
212°F 100°C Boiling water
375°F 190°C Frying temperature
  • Volume

1 cup = 240 ml (millliliter)
1/2 cup = 120 ml
1/3 cup = 80 ml
1/4 cup = 60 ml = 4 tablespoons
1/5 cup = 50 ml
1 tablespoon (= une cuillérée à soupe literally soup spoon or cs in French) = 15 ml  = 3 teaspoons
1 teaspoon (= une cuillérée à café, literally coffee spoon or cc in French) = 5 ml

1 fluid ounce = 30 ml = 2 tablespoons
1 US quart = 0.946 liter (~=1 liter) = 4 cups
1 US Gallon = 4 quart = 3,8 liter = 16 cups

1 liter = 34 fluid oz = 1,06 quart = 0,26 gal = 4,2 cups

  • Weight

1 ounce (oz) = 28,35 grams (gr) = 0,02835 kilogram (kg)
1 pound (lb) = 16 ounces = 45 grams (gr)
2,2 pounds (lb) = 1000 grams (gr) = 1 kilogram (kg)

100 grams = 3,5 ounces
500 grams = 1,1 pounds

1 kilogram = 35 oz = 2,205 pounds

  • Volume-to-weight conversions

Approximate and rounded as it depends on the density of the ingredient itself and how you pack the cup or spoon)
Flour : 1 cup = 130 grams 
Sugar : 1 cup = 245 grams 
Butter : 1 cup = 240 grams, 1 knob (noix) = 15 grams, 1 pat (noisette) = 4 grams
Cocoa powder : 1 cup = 120 grams 
1 pinch of salt = 0,3 to 0,5 grams
1 large egg = 55 to 60 grams (egg white 20 grams, egg yolk 30 grams, shell 5 grams)

  • Length

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 12 inches = 30 centimeters

 

This article is constantly updated with additionnal conversions and measures.

 

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